This book provides a succinct account of the ways in which nanotechnology is being applied to improve energy efficiency. The coverage includes current scanning probe techniques for electrical energy storage, energy harvesting systems, and local electrochemistry as well as emerging techniques of relevance to diverse materials and devices, including advanced scanning probes for nanofabrication and nanotribology. The tools of nanotechnology, such as scanning probe microscopes and micromachines, can provide important information about the fundamental nature of space, especially the zero-point electromagnetic field. An exciting aspect of this subject is that a better understanding of the force that arises from the zero-point field, i.e., the Casimir force, may enable its control to some extent, impacting on the development of nanoelectromechanical systems. Readers will find this book to be a clear and concise summary of the state of the art in nanophysics and nanotechnology as they relate to energy efficiency.